Qi Quality Factor
Eberhard Waffenschmidt, Philips Research
The ratio of the inductance L to the resistance R of a coil remains constant for different winding arrangements in the same volume and shape. It makes sense to define this value as a figure of merit to distinguish different coil structures. The quality factor Q is defined by this ratio.
The voltage, which is induced by the same current in an inductor scales with the frequency f and thus the apparent power in the device. The general definition of the quality factor is based on the ratio of apparent power to the power losses in a device. From this definition, the quality factor of a coil results to:
with ω = 2πf:
The quality factor Q can have a value between 0 and infinity. But technically it is difficult to obtain values far above 1000 for coils. For mass production you may expect values around 100. A quality factor below 10 is not very useful. These values have to be considered as the typical order of magnitude.
The quality factor Q is in first order only dependent on the shape and size of the coil and on the used materials for a fixed operating frequency. For typical technologies (e.g. wire-wound coils, PCB coils) typical quality factors can be given.
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